Geoff Bascand, head of Statistics New Zealand, will leave his job at the end of May to take up a deputy governor role at the Reserve Bank.
He will take up the role currently held by Don Abel, assistant governor and head of operations, who retires this week after eight years at the central bank.
Bascand will join Grant Spencer, the bank's deputy chief executive and head of financial stability, as one of two deputy governors who serve under RBNZ head Graeme Wheeler.
"Mr Bascand is a very accomplished leader and manager," Wheeler said. "In his time at Statistics NZ, he has strengthened the official statistics system, improved organisational performance, enhanced relations and governance mechanisms, and led significant cultural change and leadership development."
Bascand's resignation ends a six year tenure at the government statistics office.
Prior to that he held senior positions at the Department of Labour and the New Zealand Treasury, and also worked as a senior economist at the International Monetary Fund.
No immediate replacement for Bascand has been named, and the statement said the State Services Commission will be advertising his job shortly.