Kiribati children at the mercy of climate change - Unicef stuff nation video

A baby lies in the maternity ward of the Nawerewere Hospital on South Tarawa in the central Pacific island nation of ...
DAVID GRAY

A baby lies in the maternity ward of the Nawerewere Hospital on South Tarawa in the central Pacific island nation of Kiribati. This nation consists of a chain of atolls and islands that stand just metres above sea level.

OPINION: Imagine for a moment, a baby girl named Tien, born today in Kiribati – the Central Pacific nation often referred to as the 'poster child' for the relentless impacts of climate change. The arrival of a new baby should bring with it joy, love and optimism for the future. What if instead it brings fear, uncertainty and the prospect of leaving behind all you've ever known in order to give your child a better future? 

This is not a hypothetical situation for people across the low-lying atolls of Kiribati, it is more and more an undeniable reality. 

So what then does the future hold for baby Tien? The odds are not stacked in her favour. It's likely that she will be the last generation of her family to grow up in Kiribati; an atoll nation scattered across vast expanses of ocean that is projected to disappear beneath the waves of the Pacific Ocean within the next 50 years. 

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The effects of Tropical Cyclone Pam, a Category 5 storm which hit Vanuatu caused significant damage, particularly in the central and southern parts of Vanuatu. The island nation of 264,700 people is heavily reliant on subsistence agriculture, fishing and tourism.

Tien and her family, along with scores of other i-Kiribati people, will have to wrestle with the reality of leaving Kiribati and moving elsewhere - what Anote Tong, the President of Kiribati, refers to as "migration with dignity." 

The reality is complex, uncertain and pervaded by an overwhelming sense of grief and loss for a nation which could be the first wholly displaced by climate change. The consensus among the people of Kiribati is that they will be leaving parts of their culture, heritage, ancestry and traditions behind on their beloved islands. 

The years Tien does get to spend on Kiribati will also be fraught with inequity and inequality. Rising sea levels and coastal erosion are just the starting point for a number of daily challenges.

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In the cruelest of dichotomies, Kiribati suffers from both 'too much' and 'too little' water – rising sea levels threaten the country's existence while insufficient drinking water threatens daily life.

Kiribati cuts across the equator but is at the mercy of a dry climate and frequent droughts. Access to safe drinking water is a growing concern as rising sea water permeates scarce ground water supplies. Ground water wells, a vital source of fresh drinking water, are turning salty. 

In turn, a lack of fresh water also leads to dire sanitation, hygiene and health issues, compounded by a lack of toilets, high rates of open defecation and low rates of handwashing. Stagnant water supplies are the perfect incubator for waterborne diseases and diarrhea is rife. 

A boy carries supplies through waist-high floodwater in the Philippines, caused by Tropical Storm Ketsana.
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A boy carries supplies through waist-high floodwater in the Philippines, caused by Tropical Storm Ketsana.

Beyond drinking water, baby Tien's nutrition will also be compromised; the coral and reef-based soil makes agriculture and farming near impossible, especially when the water needed to nourish crops is in short supply. Fish 'Too much' water means that even the idea of 'home' is a transitory concept in Kiribati. South Tarawa, the capital and hub of Kiribati, has less than 15km2 of usable land. In the past 35 years its population has tripled as people move from the outer islands to escape the effects of climate change.

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Tarawa is now home to half the country's population, more than 50,000 people, perversely making the tiny atoll one of the world's more overcrowded places, with a population density twice that of New York. In addition to further stressing already stretched water supplies, this has led to vast overcrowding and dangerous levels of pollution from human waste.

Although it may be hard to imagine, South Tarawa is also an average of just 450 metres wide. When a 'king tide' (the local term for an especially high tide) hits, much of the atoll can be inundated with devastating waves of sea water. 

As a child, Tien will learn that you have to be ready to swim at any time - even when you're asleep in bed. Because of this, Tien's house will most likely be relocated several times as she grows, as her family attempts to escape the ever-encroaching sea. Her school may also move if it is inundated too often. 

With families increasingly moving overseas, Kiribati risks losing its most skilled citizens, including teachers. For Tien this means her chances of getting a good education are even further compromised. If it seems like this is an inescapable vicious cycle that's because it is.

Throughout the Pacific region, nations are grappling to secure their futures in the face of immense challenges.

Kiribati is not alone in feeling the effects of climate change – in fact there isn't a country in the region that isn't affected. While Pacific communities are very resilient by necessity, children instinctively sense the challenges ahead – and for a child like Tien these challenges may well be insurmountable. Development gains hard won over decades may be reversed as populations are displaced and compromised by the consequences of a problem created far away by wealthier nations.

At COP21 Pacific leaders will amplify the call for urgent climate action, not 'later', but now. 

Children like Tien don't have the luxury of waiting for glacial change, her future is under threat today. As world leaders gather in Paris we ask what the future will hold for Tien and other children born in the Pacific region today. 

As the unwilling poster children for the impacts of climate change, surely we owe them better.

About Unicef

Unicef promotes the rights and wellbeing of every child, in everything we do. Together with our partners, we work in 190 countries and territories to translate that commitment into practical action, focusing special effort on reaching the most vulnerable and excluded children, to the benefit of all children, everywhere. 

For more information about Unicef and its work visit: www.unicef.org.nz

 

 - Stuff.co.nz

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