From fringe ingredient to Western pantry staple, quinoa's star has risen exponentially in recent years. Where we once muttered the word with a degree of self-consciousness, quinoa now rolls off the tongue.
The little high-protein seed appears to be on a fast-track to omnipresence; it peppers the menus of our cafes and restaurants and is increasingly popping up in supermarket aisles in everything from breakfast cereals and pasta to chocolate bars.
Scouring quinoa recipes online turns up the full gamut of dishes, from the amazing to the less-than-appealing (turkey quinoa meatloaf, anyone?). Seems we can't get enough.
The rise of quinoa
The growing demand for this healthy seed, traditionally grown and eaten in the Andes, is largely due to its recognised health benefits.
There's an ever-growing number of people in the developed world on gluten-free diets for one thing. It's also popular with vegetarians looking to increase their protein intake, and with vegans because of its unique balance of amino acids.
It's seen as a great option for diabetics and others looking for lower-GI alternatives to rice, bread and cous cous.
But its popularity, particularly among health-fad followers, has also seen it earn a sort of enmity. A recent posting on Twitter headed "Quinoa - instructions for t--sers" advised would-be cooks to "remove [quinoa] from the heat and let stand for 10 minutes, whilst you have a chance to loathe yourself even more for the middle-class, stereotypical waste of space you've become."
Articles published at The Guardian in January helped fan concern that skyrocketing demand in wealthy countries was taking quinoa out of the mouths of the rural people in Peru and Bolivia who have traditionally grown and eaten the seed.
The Guardian article noted that in Lima, quinoa was now more expensive than chicken and was increasingly being replaced in the diets of poorer people by less nutritious foods.
In February Bolivian president Evo Morales said domestic consumption of quinoa had increased "threefold in the past four years ... to 12,000 tonnes". However, it appears much of the demand is coming from the wealthier sectors of Bolivian society.
The UN declared 2013 the International Year of Quinoa with the aim of increasing knowledge and ultimately the production of what it describes as a "life-sustaining seed" that could "help promote food security and poverty eradication, cut malnutrition and boost biodiversity".
A spokeswoman for the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organisation insisted that quinoa-addicts in countries such as Australia could eat South-American grown quinoa without feeling guilty.
Goizargi De Las Heras told goodfood.com.au that quinoa remains far less-expensive in the Andean countries. "In some cases the mark-up can be up to seven times the price in comparison to the local price in the producer country."
De Las Heras said farmers in particular were profiting from growing international prices. "[They] are now able to afford other foods, to complement their diets, which they couldn't afford before".
The governments of Peru and Bolivia are also implementing programs to ensure quinoa remains a part of the local diet, for example subsidised quinoa in school breakfasts.
Cooking with quinoa
Sydney-based chef Michael Moore was asked to write a quinoa cookbook earlier this year, with publishers keen to cash in on its pulling-power. Moore, a diabetic, was already a convert who had included quinoa recipes in his previous cookbook Blood Sugar. At his Sydney restaurant O Bar and Dining kitchen staff use about 200 kilograms every six weeks.
Moore says he appreciates quinoa for its health benefits but also for its "nice nutty, delicate flavour". Moore says that despite quinoa's growing popularity, many people are still wary of cooking with it.
"It's one of the main questions I get asked when I do book signings," he said. "The funny thing is it's actually very easy to cook." Quinoa has far less starch than rice or couscous, he explains, "so it doesn't go gluggy and is quite difficult to overcook".
Moore cooks quinoa in batches and keeps a container in the fridge for up to five days, and uses it in breakfasts, to bulk up soups or to throw into salads and even desserts.
"The best thing about it is its versatility," says Moore. "It can go with about any cuisine. It picks up the soy flavours in an Asian dish, the spices in a Moroccan tagine or the garlic and red wine in an Italian recipe."
Moore explains in Blood Sugar: Quinoa & Healthy Living that he likes to cook quinoa in lots of lightly salted water; slightly more than the 2-1 ratio often prescribed. He adds the quinoa when the water is simmering and cooks it until it's just tender; usually 12 minutes for white quinoa, 14 minutes for red quinoa and up to 18 minutes for black quinoa. Once the quinoa is cooked he places it into a fine sieve and runs cold water through it. Moore says white quinoa is more easily overcooked than the red and black varieties, which retain some of their chew.
In Melbourne, chef Nicky Riemer says quinoa has moved into the mainstream and is constantly on the menu at her restaurant, Union Dining in Richmond. She has a different approach to cooking quinoa than Moore.
Riemer believes it is vital to thoroughly rinse quinoa seeds before cooking them. "It is covered in something called saponin, which acts as a natural insect repellent but it has a bitter taste," she says. She advises cooking one cup of white quinoa in two cups of water. She puts the quinoa in cold water then brings it up to a simmer for 12-15 minutes - until nearly all the water has been absorbed; "It should be slightly damp". Riemer then tips the cooked quinoa onto a tray to cool. She uses more water, about 2 1/2 cups, for red and black quinoa.
"I use it in salads, particularly in place of freekeh if we have a gluten-free request. It's a great substitute for pasta or rice or wheat grain in salads, risottos and soups.
"You don't have to put it in raw; you can add it to soups once it's cooked and it won't dissolve and it adds a nutty flavour."
MICHAEL MOORE'S QUINOA RUMBLED EGGS
You can modify this recipe how ever you like - I find roasted red peppers with crumbled fetta cheese also tastes great.
NEED TO KNOW
|Type of dish||Quick and easy|
|Cooking time||<30 min|
|8 large free range eggs|
|1/2 cup light cream|
|Sea salt and pepper|
|2 tablespoon olive oil|
|1 medium-sized green zucchini in 1 cm dice with skin on|
|1 small red onion, finely diced|
|1 clove garlic, crushed|
|1/4 teaspoon dried chilli flakes|
|60g yellow grape tomatoes, halved|
|60g red cherry tomatoes, halved|
|1 bunch fresh basil, leaves picked and shredded|
|250g cooked red quinoa|
|2 tablespoons pine nuts, toasted|
1. In a medium-sized bowl crack the eggs and lightly whisk together with the light cream, sea salt and pepper.
2. Warm the olive oil in a large non-stick frying pan, add the diced zucchini, red onion, crushed garlic and the chilli flakes. Cook together for 3 minutes.
3. Add the tomatoes, basil and the cooked quinoa and cook for a further 2 minutes.
4. Over a high heat, add the egg mixture and stir with a wooden spoon or spatula.
5. Keep stirring until mixture just begins to thicken. Remove from the heat and adjust seasoning and chilli level.
6. Spoon into your serving dishes and sprinkle with toasted pine nuts.
- Good Food