Standout New Zealand fast bowler Trent Boult is unlikely to bowl again in the second test and his participation in the ODI series and Champions Trophy is under a cloud.
Boult wandered off Headingley with a side strain after bowling two overs in England's second innings before they reached 116-1 at stumps on day three, a lead of 296.
A team spokeswoman said Boult would receive more treatment overnight and his injury would be reassessed in the morning, but he was unlikely to bowl on day four. If he required any scans they would happen after the test.
It was a further injury blow to New Zealand as their chances of squaring the series went up in smoke. Boult took 5-57 in England's first innings of 354, the second-best bowling figures of his 15-test career.
Captain Brendon McCullum struggled with a sore back on his return to keeping wicket but soldiered on, whilst BJ Watling, Bruce Martin and Daniel Vettori were all ruled out of the second test for various reasons.
For now New Zealand's wounds are also mental after they folded for 174 in their first innings, including a collapse of 9-70 after an opening stand of 55 between Peter Fulton and Hamish Rutherford. It was a week after their collapse for 68 in the heavy first test defeat at Lord's.
"I don't think it's sunk in as much. It happened pretty quickly at Lord's. We're obviously disappointed, the middle order. Ruds and Fults got us off to a good start and we've got to give credit to England, they did put us under pressure and we didn't get the runs we would have liked," Ross Taylor said.
"We've played some good cricket in New Zealand and we're pretty disappointed with the way we played at Lord's. We did everything we could [in preparation]."
Taylor was surprised England captain Alastair Cook didn't enforce the follow-on as New Zealand trailed by 180, and the follow-on mark was reduced to 150 behind by the day one washout.
"Cook batted very well and positively and obviously losing Boult early on was a big blow with the way he bowled in the first innings, taking five wickets and only going for two an over.
"It's a big ask for our quick bowlers and Nossy [Kane Williamson] tomorrow after some big toil on the first day. But we need to show some fight and keep England out there as long as possible and hopefully make our job a bit easier come tomorrow afternoon and day five."
England spinner Graeme Swann took 4-42, including 3-1 in seven balls as the New Zealand middle order collapsed. It was his first test wicket at Headingley, and his first test wicket against New Zealand after he missed the March series due to elbow surgery.
Swann defended the decision not to enforce the follow-on, given New Zealand's fragile state and the forecast for rain on day five.
"It was a unanimous decision with a lot of time left in the game. We felt the best way to win is to put a fatigued New Zealand out into the field which I'm sure their bowlers aren't too happy about and you can't blame them.
"We'll try to build a formidable lead and let the pitch deteriorate a bit more and give ourselves the best chance to bowl them out."
Should the NZ selectors pick Jesse Ryder if he's available?