Trouble was brewing before 1860
Interesting editorial regarding the Maori land settlement (December 22).
I would like to point out though, that although the interracial land wars began in 1860, Carrington considered the troubles over land began in 1842.
He had surveyed the Waitara area, including the Pekapeka block and when the agent was to ballot off the sections, he realised he had not delineated native occupational area.
After consultation he pencilled these on the map, but in spite of protestations from both Carrington and Captain King the agent went ahead and sold the land from under the Maori feet.
When some iwi reoccupied land the agent armed 30 settlers in New Plymouth, sailed to Waitara and drove them off again. - see Chronicles of the Garden of New Zealand - also known as Taranaki, 1893 by William Seffern, editor of the Taranaki Herald.
Taranaki Daily News