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All 52 passengers, including six New Zealanders, trapped for more than a week on an icebound Russian research ship in the Antarctic were rescued when a Chinese helicopter swooped in and plucked them from the ice a dozen at a time.
The dramatic international rescue operation became possible once the weather finally cleared. Blinding snow, strong winds, fog and thick sea ice forced rescuers to turn back time and again.
The twin-rotor helicopter - its red and yellow colors contrasting starkly against the ice and snow - carried the scientists and tourists from the Russian ship MV Akademik Shokalskiy to an Australian icebreaker, according to the Australian Maritime Safety Authority's Rescue Coordination Centre, which oversaw the rescue.
At one point, the passengers linked arms and stomped out a landing site in the snow next to the Russian ship for the helicopter, which is based on a Chinese icebreaker.
The eagerly anticipated rescue came after days of failed attempts to reach the vessel, which was trapped since Christmas Eve.
The icebreaker Aurora Australis will take the passengers to the Australian island state of Tasmania, a journey expected to last two weeks.
"I think everyone is relieved and excited to be going on to the Australian icebreaker and then home," expedition leader Chris Turney told The Associated Press by satellite phone from the Antarctic.
Turney tweeted close to midnight (NZT) that all the passengers had made it to Aurora Australis.
— Chris Turney (@ProfChrisTurney) January 2, 2014
He had tweeted about 6.45pm (NZT) that the Chinese helicopter had arrived to evacuate the scientists and tourists stuck on board the Akademik Shokalskiy since Christmas Eve. Turney also posted a video of the helicopter arriving.
— Chris Turney (@ProfChrisTurney) January 2, 2014
The 22 crew members of the Akademik Shokalskiy stayed with the icebound vessel, which is not in danger of sinking and has enough supplies on board to last for weeks. They will wait until the ice that surrounds the ship breaks up.
The Aurora Australis has been asked to remain in the open water on standby for the Chinese icebreaker, the Xue Long, which has concerns about its ability to move through heavy ice in the area.
The Xue Long advised the Rescue Coordination Centre Australia it will attempt to move through the ice when tidal conditions are most suitable tomorrow.
The AMSA placed the Aurora Australis on standby as a precautionary measure, and said there was no immediate danger to personnel on board the Chinese ship.
The Akademik Shokalskiy, which left New Zealand on November 28, got stuck after a blizzard pushed the sea ice around the ship, freezing it in place about 2700 kilometres south of Hobart, Tasmania.
Three icebreakers were dispatched to try to crack their way through the ice surrounding the Russian ship, but all failed. The Aurora came within 20 kilometres of the ship, but fierce winds and snow forced it to retreat to open water.
It initially appeared the weather had thwarted yet another rescue attempt. The helicopter was originally going to carry the passengers back to the Chinese icebreaker, the Snow Dragon, with a barge then ferrying them to the Aurora. But sea ice prevented the barge from reaching the Chinese vessel, and the maritime authority said the operation would have to be delayed.
A last-minute change in plans allowed the rescue to go ahead. The passengers were instead flown to an ice floe next to the Aurora and then taken by a small boat to the Australian ship, Turney said.
While scientists expect and observe more extreme weather with man-made global warming, some say it's not quite fair to blame the Antarctic blizzard that trapped the ship on climate change.
University of Colorado ice scientist Waleed Abdalati, NASA's former chief scientist, cautioned, like many scientists do, that while researchers can spot a trend in extreme weather, they can't immediately associate an individual event -like a blizzard - with changing climate.
When scientists do attribute an individual extreme weather event to climate change, it is usually more than a year later after numerous computer model simulations and then published in a peer-reviewed journal.
Also, Antarctica, which is more governed by localised wind circulation and other characteristics, "is kind of its own beast," Abdalati said. "Antarctica feels the changing climate a little differently than the rest of the world. I myself can't point to the weather and say 'it's part of a changing climate."'
The scientific team on board the Russian vessel had been recreating Australian explorer Douglas Mawson's 1911 to 1913 voyage to Antarctica.
Turney had hoped to continue the trip if an icebreaker managed to free the ship. Despite his disappointment over the expedition being cut short, he said his spirits remained high.
"I'm a bit sad it's ended this way," he said. "But we got lots and lots of great science done."
China has an interest in Antarctica, with the growing scientific power recently beginning construction on its fourth Antarctic research base.
It was unknown how long it would be before the Russian ship could be freed from the pack ice or how long the crew would have to remain in Antarctica.
The 74 people onboard the ship were retracing Sir Douglas Mawson's Antarctic expedition and conducting scientific research when it became trapped in sea ice on Christmas Day.