Panama has seized a North Korean cargo ship it suspects was hiding missile equipment in a shipment of brown sugar from Cuba, after a standoff in which the ship's captain tried to slit his own throat.
The ship was stopped last week as it headed into the Panama Canal and authorities arrested the crew on Monday (local time) after finding undeclared missile-shaped objects - a potential violation of UN sanctions linked to North Korea's nuclear programme.
"We found containers which presumably contain sophisticated missile equipment. That is not allowed. The Panama canal is a canal of peace, not war," Panama's President Ricardo Martinelli told local radio.
A photo posted on Martinelli's Twitter page showed a long, green missile-shaped object with a tapering, conical end inside the ship, which he said was bound for North Korea.
A security expert said pictures showed radar systems for Vietnam-era, Soviet-made surface-to-air missiles.
The US State Department praised Panama's decision to raid the ship, which it said had a history of involvement in drug smuggling, and warned the vessel would be violating United Nations Security Council resolutions by shipping arms.
The United Nations has imposed a raft of sanctions on North Korea, including strict regulations on arms shipments, for flouting measures aimed at curbing its nuclear weapons programme.
But Cuban officials said the military equipment was obsolete weaponry from the mid-20th century that it had sent to be repaired.
Cuba's Foreign Ministry released a statement acknowledging that the military equipment belonged to the Caribbean nation, saying it had been shipped out to be repaired and returned to the island.
"The agreements subscribed by Cuba in this field are supported by the need to maintain our defensive capacity in order to preserve national sovereignty," the statement read.
Panama's security minister, Jose Raul Mulino, said his government had stopped the ship last Wednesday (local time) and had so far found two containers of military equipment. He did not specify whether the cargo contained actual missiles but said the search could last up to a week.
When Panamanian officials began looking inside containers stuffed with over 250,000 100-kilogram bags of brown sugar, the captain became violent, Mulino said.
The captain, a North Korean citizen like the crew, tried to slit his throat with a knife, a police official said. The man was in hospital in stable condition, the official added, speaking on condition of anonymity.
Ben Rhode, a North Korea security expert at Harvard's Kennedy School of Government, suggested the captain's suicide attempt might have been an effort to escape severe punishment by officials in North Korea for failing to carry out his mission.
All 35 members of the crew of the ship, which is called Chong Chon Gang, were arrested after resisting Panamanian orders and are now being questioned at Fort Sherman, a former US Army Base on the Atlantic, the official added.
Mulino, the security minister, said that Panama would consult with the United Nations to determine which agency could charge the crew members for smuggling illegal weapons.
An official at North Korea's UN mission said nobody was available to comment on the ship.
IHS Jane, a global analytics firm, said it had identified the equipment shown in the images as an SNR-75 'Fan Song' fire control radar for the SA-2 family of surface-to-air missiles.
The radar, built by Russian weapons manufacturer Almaz-Antey and first used during the Vietnam war, has been credited with destroying many Western aircraft, according to Air Power Australia, a defence think tank.
More recently, the relatively cheap and simple system has been put to use in the Middle East and Africa.
Carlo Kopp of Air Power Australia said as China was manufacturing the SNR-75 up until the end of the 1980s, North Korea likely already had the radars in its stockpile.
A US official said the most likely explanation for the cargo was that Cuba was sending missile system parts to North Korea for an upgrade, and sending sugar with them to pay for the work. A security official said Panama had asked US experts to help inspect and identify the weapons.
Cuban government officials declined comment on the incident, which drew a stinging response from some US critics of the island's Communist leadership.
US Representative Ileana Ros-Lehtinen, the Florida Republican who heads the House subcommittee on the Middle East and North Africa, called on President Barack Obama's administration to cancel migration talks with Cuba this week.
North Korea is under wide-ranging sanctions enacted by the United Nations, the United States and the European Union, including a UN ban on all arms exports, due to its nuclear program.
"Shipments of arms or related materiel to and from (North) Korea would violate Security Council resolutions, three of them as a matter of fact," said US Ambassador Rosemary DiCarlo, president of the UN Security Council this month.
"Obviously this shipment, if it's confirmed to have what we suspect, would be of interest to the (UN North Korea) sanctions committee," she told reporters in New York.
Previous violations of sanctions included North Korean shipments of arms-related material to Syria in November 2010 and rocket fuses for Iran in 2008.
The ship, built in 1977, was tracked leaving Port Vostochny, in Russia's far east, on April 12, according to Lloyd's List Intelligence, a maritime intelligence company. It was next registered arriving in Balboa, on the Panama Canal's Pacific side, on May 31, and crossed the waterway the next day heading for Havana.
It then disappeared from the tracking system and reappeared in Manzanillo, Panama, on July 11, according to shipping data obtained by research group IHS Maritime. IHS said there were indications it had changed cargo in the interim.
In 2010, the Chong Chon Gang was stopped by Ukrainian authorities who found small-arms ammunition and narcotics aboard the vessel, according to Hugh Griffiths, an arms trafficking expert at the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute.
A year earlier, the ship had stopped in Tartus, Syria, home to a Russian naval base, Griffiths added.